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The main indication for uterus transplantation is congenital absence or other congenital malformation of the uterus, which has an incidence of approximately 1:5,000. Other indications include loss of the uterus from either benign or malignant tumors, postpartum complications, or irreversible acquired uterine injury (for example, radiation, adhesions, and inoperable fibromas)
The alternative to uterine transplantation is gestational surrogacy, in which a pregnancy is carried by a woman other than the intended parent.